This past March, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service approved the request to import “trophies” of two American hunters These “trophies” will be the remains of two dead black rhinos after a scheduled hunt in Namibia. Black rhinos are listed as critically endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Therefore, approving such a request requires that the import will enhance the species’ survival. Since 2003, Namibia has enforced the Black Rhino Conservation Strategy which authorizes the killing of five male rhinos annually to stimulate population growth. When considering the request, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service experienced an “unprecedented” level of public involvement.
Rhinos are not the only animals targeted in these trophy hunts. All megafauna of the African ecosystem are available for the hunt. The African lion population has been in a serious decline, prompting individuals and organizations to demand that the species be listed as endangered under the ESA. Studies have shown that trophy hunting is a direct cause to this decline, albeit not the only cause.
Trophy hunting has come under severe criticism by environmentalists, animal rights activists, and the general public. Trophy hunters, like those involved in the Black Rhino Conservation Strategy, claim that their hunting promotes the conservation of these species and greatly benefits the local economies of poorer African countries. However, the conservationist reasoning for trophy hunting has not survived the scrutiny of recent study.
Hunters and local governments claim that the revenue received from the hunting expeditions trickles down to the local community level and directly to conservation funds. This creates an incentive for the community to preserve the African ecosystem and allow the hunting industry to thrive. However, these communities and conservation funds see little money. In fact, a study done in Tanzania, the largest trophy hunting market in Africa, concludes that as little as 3% of revenue reaches the local level. Furthermore, corruption at the government level further prevents benefits reaching the local community. Trophy hunting affecting the national economy, when only 3% reaches the local community, is practically impossible. Also, of that 3%, any portion set for conservation is minimal.
Americans are the largest players in this market and any regulation on American imports would arguably inhibit these “trophies” from leaving Africa. Listing more African species as endangered would inhibit the trophy hunting industry. Understanding that trophy hunting’s benefit to the conservation is incredibly insignificant at best, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service should deny any permit request involving the “trophies” of endangered animals.
Filed under: animal law, endangered species, environmental law, Uncategorized Tagged: | Black Rhino, Black Rhino Conservation Strategy, conservation, endangered species, environmental law, Trophy hunters, trophy hunting, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service